Drugs and Crime

Drugs and Crime

A Complex Relationship. Third revised and expanded edition

Par Serge Brochu , Natacha Brunelle , Chantal Plourde

240 pages · 9x6 · 13 mars 2018

Papier ISBN : 9780776626321

PDF ISBN : 9780776626338

ePub ISBN : 9780776626345

Disponibilité : En stock

Nom du produit Prix Qté
Papier
34,95 $ CA
-
+
PDF
29,99 $ CA
-
+
ePub
29,99 $ CA
-
+

Description

Concevoir la question des drogues illicites en dehors de leur contexte criminel est difficile. Certaines questions reviennent immanquablement : prendre de la drogue pousse-t-il vraiment à la délinquance ? Existe-t-il des drogues aux propriétés criminogènes ? Pourquoi un toxicomane se tourne-t-il vers la criminalité ? Quelles sont les meilleures façons d’intervenir auprès des personnes qui ont de graves problèmes de consommation ? 

Cette troisième édition présente la relation complexe entre drogue et criminalité, évitant les énoncés sommaires qui voudraient que l’usage de substances psychoactives mène nécessairement au crime. Elle met ainsi en lumière les contextes politiques et légaux liés aux drogues et fait une synthèse exceptionnelle des résultats de la recherche des vingt dernières années. Les auteurs rendent compte de l’importance accrue qu’on accorde désormais aux usagers de drogues illicites ainsi qu’aux personnes dépendantes et ils décrivent les différentes formes d’aide qui leur sont proposées.
List of Figures and Tables.......................................................... ix
Acknowledgments...................................................................... xi

INTRODUCTION....................................................................... 1
Illegal Psychoactive Substances in Canada................................. 2
Drug Use and Criminal Behaviour.............................................. 3

CHAPTER 1
Links Between Drugs and Crime in Facts and Figures............... 5
Youth........................................................................................... 6
Adults.......................................................................................... 9
Justice-involved Individuals....................................................... 9
Drugs in Prison......................................................................... 12
Substance-dependent Individuals............................................. 15

CHAPTER 2
Drugs: A Detailed Criminogenic Profile................................. 19
Selected Important Definitions................................................ 20
Intoxication and Criminal Behaviour....................................... 22
Cannabinoids............................................................................ 22
Stimulants................................................................................. 26
Cocaine..................................................................................... 26
Amphetamine-type Stimulants................................................. 28
Benzodiazepines....................................................................... 30
Heroin and Other Opioids........................................................ 32
Hallucinogens........................................................................... 33
Drug Interactions...................................................................... 34
Victimization While Under the Influence of a
Psychoactive Substance............................................................ 35
The Role of Intoxication........................................................... 38
Dependence and Criminal Behaviour....................................... 38
How Users Support Their Habit............................................... 39
Crime as an Income-generating Activity.................................. 40
Acquisitive Crime..................................................................... 41
Trafficking................................................................................. 43
Other Lucrative Criminal Activities.......................................... 46
Links Between Dependence and Criminal Activity.................. 46

CHAPTER 3
The Legal and Political Landscape ........................................... 51
The Road to Repression............................................................. 51
Globalization of Trade............................................................... 51
Prohibition................................................................................. 54
The War on Drugs..................................................................... 56
Action Against Drug Producers................................................ 56
Action Against Drug Importers and Distributors..................... 57
Action Against Users ............................................................... 60
Europe....................................................................................... 65
The Netherlands........................................................................ 66
Portugal..................................................................................... 67
The Americas............................................................................ 69
The United States...................................................................... 69
Uruguay..................................................................................... 70
Canada....................................................................................... 70
Different Concepts and Approaches ......................................... 73
Normalizing the Relationship With Users................................. 74

CHAPTER 4
Proximal and Distal Models: A Static Conceptualization........ 79
Proximal Elements.................................................................... 79
Goldstein’s Tripartite Model..................................................... 80
The Psychopharmacological Model ......................................... 80
The Economic-Compulsive Model........................................... 83
The Systemic Model................................................................. 87
Non–Mutually Exclusive Types of Crime................................ 92
The Inverse Proximal Model.................................................... 93
Distal Elements......................................................................... 96

CHAPTER 5
Trajectories: A Dynamic Conceptualization........................... 101
The Evolving Drug–Crime Relationship ............................... 102
Deviant Trajectories................................................................ 104
Experimentation and Occasional Use .....................................105
Frequent Use........................................................................... 106
Regular Use............................................................................ 107
Addiction................................................................................ 110
Factors That Influence the Progression and Maintenance
of Deviant Trajectories........................................................... 112
The Substance Itself............................................................... 112
Income.................................................................................... 113
Environment .......................................................................... 113
Traumatic Events.................................................................... 114
Reduction, Cessation, and Interruption.................................. 115
Peer Pressure ......................................................................... 115
Internal Pressure..................................................................... 116
Organizational Pressure......................................................... 116
Deviant Environment Pressures............................................. 116
Women’s Distinctive Trajectory............................................. 117

CHAPTER 6
Deviant Lifestyles: An Integrated Conceptualization............. 123
The Integrative Model ............................................................ 124
Risk Factors............................................................................ 125
Deviant Lifestyles................................................................... 126
Degrees of Permeation ........................................................... 128
Stages of Progression.............................................................. 128

CHAPTER 7
Treating Addicts in the Criminal Justice System.................... 139
Access to Treatment.................................................................139
Punishment or Rehabilitation?.................................................140
"Nothing Works”......................................................................141
The Punitive Post-Martinson Era............................................ 141
“What Works?”....................................................................... 142
Treating Drug Dependence in Offenders................................ 143
Drug Courts............................................................................ 143
Post-sentencing Treatment..................................................... 145
Cognitive-Behavioural Programs........................................... 147
Therapeutic Communities and Boot Camps........................... 148
Peer Support and Twelve-Step Groups...................................150
Methadone Maintenance Programs........................................ 150
Motivational Interviewing ..................................................... 152
Co-occurring Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders... 152
Ingredients for Treatment Success...........................................153
Screening and Assessment...................................................... 154
Personalized Plans.................................................................. 155
Relapse Prevention................................................................. 156
Motivation ............................................................................. 156
Judicial Pressure .................................................................... 158
The Therapeutic Relationship................................................. 161
Adequate Treatment Duration................................................. 162
Aftercare................................................................................. 163
Extension of Social Control.................................................... 164
The Real Client....................................................................... 165
Boundaries and Bridges ......................................................... 166
Conclusion ............................................................................. 171
The Drug–Crime Relationship .............................................. 173
Who?...................................................................................... 173
Why?...................................................................................... 174
What?..................................................................................... 174
How Can Society Intervene?................................................. 175
Implementing Appropriate Policies....................................... 175
Providing Suitable Care......................................................... 177
References.............................................................................. 179
Authors and Translator........................................................... 225

Books by this Author

Les Flambeurs

Serge Brochu, Isabelle Parent

À partir de : 14,99 $ CA