Rewriting Marpole

Rewriting Marpole

The Path to Cultural Complexity in the Gulf of Georgia

By Terence N. Clark

200 Pages · 9.5x6.75 · March 30 2013

Paper ISBN: 9780776607948

PDF ISBN: 9780776620831

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This book examines prehistoric culture change in the Gulf of Georgia region of the northwest coast of North America during the Locarno Beach (3500–1100 BP) and Marpole (2000–1100 BP) periods. The Marpole culture has traditionally been seen to possess all the traits associated with complex hunter-gatherers on the northwest coast (hereditary inequality, multi-family housing, storage-based economies, resource ownership, wealth accumulation, etc.) while the Locarno Beach culture has not. This research examined artifact and faunal assemblages as well as data for art and mortuary architecture from a total of 164 Gulf of Georgia archaeological site components. Geographic location and ethnographic language distribution were also compared to the archaeological data. Analysis was undertaken using Integrative Distance Analysis (IDA), a new statistical model developed in the course of this research. Results indicated that Marpole culture was not a regional phenomenon, but much more spatially and temporally discrete than previously thought. Artifactual assemblages identified as Marpole were restricted to the areas of the Fraser River, northern Gulf Islands and portions of Vancouver Island. In contrast, the ethnographic territory of the Straits Salish showed no sign of Marpole culture, but rather a presence of Late Locarno Beach culture. The pattern found in artifacts was replicated in the distribution of art and mortuary architecture variation suggesting the cultural differences between Marpole and Late Locarno Beach cultures was real and not merely a statistical anomaly.
Abstract Dedication Acknowledgments List of Tables List of Figures Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Organization of the Dissertation 1.3 Summary of Research Objectives Chapter 2 Environmental Setting. 2.1 Physiography 2.2 Climate 2.3 Biogeography 2.3.1 Marine, Littoral and Riverine Resources 2.3.2 Coastal Douglas-fir Zone and Puget Lowland Ecozone 2.3.3 Coastal Western Hemlock Zone and Coastal Range Ecozone 2.3.4 Mountain Hemlock Zone and North Cascades Ecozone 2.3.5 Alpine Tundra Zone Chapter 3 Ethnographic Summary. 3.1 Introduction 3.2 The Northern Coast Salish 3.2.1 Geography 3.2.2 Housing and Settlement 3.2.3 Economy 3.2.4 Subsistence Technology 3.2.5 Social Organization 3.3 The Central Coast Salish 3.3.1 Geography 3.3.2 Housing and Settlement 3.3.3 Economy 3.3.4 Subsistence Technology 3.3.5 Social Organization 3.4 The Southern Coast Salish 3.4.1 Geography 3.4.2 Housing and Settlement 3.4.3 Economy 3.4.4 Subsistence Technology 3.4.5 Social Organization 3.5 Ethnographic Summary Chapter 4 Culture History. 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Defining the Units 4.2.1 Locarno Beach 4.2.2 Marpole 4.2.3 Subphases of Locarno Beach and Marpole 4.2.4 Gulf of Georgia/Developed Coast Salish 4.3 Fleshing out the Units 4.3.1 Locarno Beach Economy Housing and Settlement Status and Ritual 4.3.2 Marpole Economy Housing and Settlement Status and Ritual 4.3.3 Gulf of Georgia/DCS Economy Housing and Settlement Status and Ritual Variability within Gulf of Georgia/DCS 4.4 Complexity Among Hunter-Gatherers 4.4.1 Introduction 4.2.2 External Causation Population Replacement Circumscription and Conflict Climate Change Tectonic Activity 4.2.3 Internal Causation Resource Depletion Ownership and Access to Resources Labour Control Technological Innovation Information Control 4.4.4 Summary Chapter 5 Methodology : Integrative Archaeology 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Proximity-Based Models 5.3 Integrative Distance Analysis 5.3.1 Introduction and Assumptions 5.3.2 Statistical Procedure Step 1. Overall Variation. Step 2. Compress Overall Variation. Step 3. Analyze Compressed Variation Step 4. Complex Patterning 5.4 Methodological Summary Chapter 6 Data and Analysis 6.1 Primary Data Classes 6.1.1 Data Collection Artifacts (Full Sample) Artifacts (Small Sample) Fauna (Full Sample) Fauna (Small Sample) Language (Artifact Sample) Language (Fauna Sample) Geographic Location (Artifact Sample) Geographic Location (Fauna Sample) 6.2 Analysis 6.2.1 Step 1. Overall Variation 6.2.2 Step Two Compress Overall Variation Artifacts (Full Sample) Artifacts (Small Sample) Fauna (Full Sample) Fauna (Small Sample) Language (Artifact Sample) Language (Faunal Sample) 6.2.3 Step 3. Analyze Compressed Variation Spatial Autocorrelation PROTEST 6.2.4 Step 4 Analyze Complex Patterning Partial Mantel Test Partial PROTEST 6.2.5 Primary Data Classes Summary 6.3 Supplementary Data Classes 6.3.1 Art 6.3.2 Mortuary Architecture 6.3.3 Secondary Data Classes Summary Chapter 7 Discussion and Conclusion 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Discussions of Statistical Methods 7.3 Discussions of Culture History 7.3.1 Variability in the Gulf of Georgia 3500 to 1100 BP 7.3.2 Redefining the Cultural Units Locarno Beach Technology Marpole Technology 7.3.3 Scales of Analysis 7.3.4 Wakashan Expansion 7.4 Discussion of Social Complexity 7.4.1 The Role of Salmon 7.4.2 Explanations of Social Complexity External Causation Internal Causation 7.4.3 The Marpole Network 7.5 Summary – Mapping the Trajectories 7.6 Further Research 7.7 Conclusion References Cited Appendix 1. Artifact Frequencies Appendix 2. Faunal Frequencies Appendix 3. Radiocarbon Age Estimates

Author Bio

Terence Clark joined the Canadian Museum of Civilization in 2011 as Curator of Western Canadian Archaeology. He received his doctorate from the University of Toronto. He has held research and teaching positions at University College London and the University of Toronto. His specialities include spatial analysis, geographic information systems (GIS) and statistics. His research focuses on prehistoric economic and social change, resource management and group identity in the archaeological record in coastal British Columbia.


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